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Did you know?

  • The stomach of crocodile has a size of football ball, he eats little, but many times per day.
  • Hippo weights 3,2 tones and is one of the heaviest land mammals.
  • Giraffe is one of the rare animals that have horns at birth.
  • The elephants walk on tiptoe, because under their heel they have thick layer of fat.
  • The biggest snakes of the world can eat a human in one time and a meal lasts for one year.
  • Flamingos get the color of their feathers because of their specific nutrition.
  • African elephant can run faster then a human and can walk several hours without any rest.
  • In first year of hippo’s life 45% of them die.
  • Shark is swimming with average speed of 3km/h and maximum speed of 95 km/h.
  • Giraffe has a same number of vertebrae like most of the mammals, but theirs are much longer.
  • Bushbabies got a name because of their sounds that reminded first explorers of crying babies.
  • Elephants communicate through vibrations that they make by hitting the ground with their feet.
  • Most of the elephants sleep standing and only 2-3 hours per day.
  • Hippo can stay 5 minutes under the water-surface and can even run on the bottom of the lake.
  • The biggest known shark in the world was 13 meters long and had 15 tones
  • Leopard likes to drink water everyday, but he can stay without it up to one month.
  • Wild elephant can eat 230 kg of food and drink 125 liters of water per day sometimes at once.
  • Near relative of African ostrich is South American nandu and Australian emus.
  • Ostrich, zebra and giraffe can kill with their kick even the mighty lion.
  • Turtles, birds and crocs like to rest on the backs of hippos.
  • African tribes are hunting bushbabies by leaving a palm wine in the forest and collecting drunk animals from it.
  • Warthog can run 50 km/h and they are very skillful to defend themselves.
  • The head of the rhino weights 200 kg.
  • Black leopard or Panther was first considered as different species, but in same family can be puppies of normal and black colour.
  • The biggest turtle in the world is belonging to the species of leatherback and weights 752 kg.
  • The grey rat is living everywhere in the world except polar countries. One couple can have up to 800 babies in just one year.
  • Insect-eating bats produce ultrasound of very high frequency, with echoes that bounce back, they get all necessary information.
  • One of the most shamefaced animals in area of high and low tide is octopus.
  • The longest recorded jump of bushbaby from one branch to another was more then 7 meters.
  • From 1830 on each year 10 to 30 thousand slaves were sold at slave market on Zanzibar.
  • Coconut palm can live up to 100 years but can reproduce only 20 years.
  • Warthog’s only enemies are lion and leopard.
  • In darkness leopard can see 6 times and hear 2 times better then human.
  • Monkey species of red colobus are living only in forest Jozani on Zanzibar Island.
  • Cheetahs are running 120 km/h, but only 20 seconds. This is still enough for successful hunting.
  • Insectivorous bats obtain most of the water they need from their prey, cave bats can lick up condensation.

History of Kilimanjaro

Formation of Mount Kilimanjaro

It was around one million years ago when the plains were unstable, cracking from the powerful force of movements deep within the earth. The Kilimanjaro depression was created as a result of this violent activity. The inner force formed the volcanoes Ol Molog, Kibongoto and Kilema along a 100 km (60 miles) long ridge that reached 3000 m (9.843 feet) in height.

750.000 years ago

The formation of Mount Kilimanjaro started around 750.000 years ago, when it had three large volcanoes: Shira, Kibo and Mawenzi. Over many thousand years Shira eventually collapsed and started to extinct. Mawenzi was much longer an active volcano, but also his end was similar, started to extinct and erode. The last one and the most active was Kibo. It continued with massive eruptions around 360.000 years ago. It was releasing black lava and covering Shira’s caldera with it. That’s how we got the area called Saddle at the base of Mawenzi.

First humans near Kilimanjaro

It is certain that humans lived near the mountain for centuries. They never discovered extremely important archeological site, but they did find some rings, bowls made from obsidian, dark volcanic glass on the western slopes of the mountain. Mountain is considered to be about 750 000 years old, yet it has only really captured the attention of modern man in the last 150 years.

First published note

The first published note on the existence of Kilimanjaro was written by Greek Ptolemy over 18 centuries ago. The next known reference ‘to the great mountain west of Zanzibar’ was written by a Chinese trader 6 to 7 centuries ago. Johann Rebmann, a Christian missionary to the area in 1849, is credited with bringing Kilimanjaro to the attention of Europe – not surprisingly he was not immediately believed when he published his account of a snow capped mountain near the equator.

Attempts to conquer

Shortly thereafter, a number of unsuccessful attempts were made by various explorers to conquer, map and explore Kilimanjaro. It was only in 1889 that Dr Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller finally reached Kilimanjaro's highest peak with the assistance of a huge team of guides, porters and advisors. It took them almost 6 weeks to reach the summit. Interestingly enough, it has been reported that in 1989 (100 years later) one of Dr Meyer’s guides was still alive and well at the age of 118 years.

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